Baptist Church

This church is not to be confused with logician Alonzo Church. It is probably very clean.

An ordinal is considered recursive iff it is the order type of a computable well-ordering of a subset of the natural numbers. The Church-Kleene ordinal \(\omega_1^\text{CK}\), then, is the first ordinal that is not recursive.

An ordinal is always recursive iff it is less than another recursive ordinal, so the Church-Kleene ordinal is also the supremum of all recursive ordinals. It is a limit ordinal, since the successor of a recursive ordinal is also recursive. Since every computable well-ordering can be identified by a distinct Turing machine, of which there are countably many, \(\omega_1^\text{CK}\) is also countable.

Ordinal notation Edit

A system called Kleene's \(\mathcal{O}\) gives us an ordinal notation over all recursive ordinals. Before constructing Kleene's \(\mathcal{O}\), first we need an enumeration \(f_0, f_1, f_2, \ldots\) of all the partial recursive functions. One way to do this is to order all the Turing machines lexicographically.

Let \(K\) be the set of all notations, let \(<_\mathcal{O}\) be an operator indicating a well-ordering of \(K\), and let \(\mathcal{O}\) be a function mapping notations to ordinals. These three are defined inductively as follows:

  • \(0 \in K\) and \(\mathcal{O}(0) = 0\).
  • If \(n \in K\) and \(\mathcal{O}(n) = \alpha\), then \(2^n \in K\), \(\mathcal{O}(2^n) = \alpha + 1\), and \(n <_\mathcal{O} 2^n\).
  • If for all natural numbers \(n\), we have \(f_i(n) \in K\) and \(f_i(n) <_\mathcal{O} f_i(n + 1)\), then \(3 \cdot 5^i \in K\), \(\mathcal{O}(3 \cdot 5^i) = \lim_{k \rightarrow \omega} \mathcal{O}(f_i(k))\), and for all \(k\) \(f_i(k) <_\mathcal{O} 3 \cdot 5^i\).
  • \(a <_\mathcal{O} b\) and \(b <_\mathcal{O} c\) implies \(a <_\mathcal{O} c\).

Kleene's \(\mathcal{O}\) is, inescapably, not a computable notation.

See also Edit

Ordinals, ordinal analysis and set theory

Basics: cardinal numbers · normal function · ordinal notation · ordinal numbers
Theories: Presburger arithmetic · Peano arithmetic · second-order arithmetic · ZFC
Countable ordinals: \(\omega\) · \(\varepsilon_0\) · \(\zeta_0\) · \(\Gamma_0\) · \(\vartheta(\Omega^3)\) · \(\vartheta(\Omega^\omega)\) · \(\vartheta(\Omega^\Omega)\) · \(\vartheta(\varepsilon_{\Omega + 1})\) · \(\psi(\Omega_\omega)\) · \(\psi(\varepsilon_{\Omega_\omega + 1})\) · \(\psi(\psi_I(0))\)‎ · \(\omega_1^\mathfrak{Ch}\) · \(\omega_1^\text{CK}\) · \(\lambda,\zeta,\Sigma,\gamma\) · List of countable ordinals
Ordinal hierarchies: Fast-growing hierarchy · Slow-growing hierarchy · Hardy hierarchy · Middle-growing hierarchy · N-growing hierarchy
Uncountable cardinals: \(\omega_1\) · omega fixed point · inaccessible cardinal \(I\) · Mahlo cardinal \(M\) · weakly compact cardinal \(K\) · indescribable cardinal · rank-into-rank cardinal · more...

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