The extended operators[1] are an extension to the hyper operators by Jonathan Bowers. Their extensions eventually form BEAF.


Bowers uses a{b}c = a↑↑...↑↑c with b arrows in Arrow notation, so a{1}b is exponentiation, a{2}b is tetration, a{3}b is pentation, and so on. Originally a{1}b was addition, but it was changed to exponentiation on Bird's request.

Then Bowers defines a new operator, {{1}}, above all the hyper-operators. It is defined as follows:

a\lbrace\lbrace1\rbrace\rbrace b = a\lbrace a\lbrace...\lbrace a\lbrace a\rbrace a\rbrace...\rbrace a\rbrace a with 2b-1 a's and b nested layers.

Then he defined \lbrace\lbrace2\rbrace\rbrace to be the next operator after \lbrace\lbrace1\rbrace\rbrace. It behaves like {2}, but using {{1}} as a base. Then comes {{3}}, {{4}}, and so on.

Then he defines a structure after all that, {{{1}}}. It nests values in {{}} just like {{1}} nests values in {}. Then comes {{{2}}}, {{{3}}}, {{{{1}}}}, {{{{{1}}}}}, and so on.

Bowers eventually switched to {a,b,c,d}, meaning a{{...{{c}}...}}b with d pairs of braces.

Here is the definition:

{a,b,1,1} = a^b

{a,1,b,c} = a

{a,b,1,d} = {a,a,{a,b-1,1,d},d-1}

{a,b,c,d} = {a,{a,b-1,c,d},c-1,d}



Ad blocker interference detected!

Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.